Is an autoimmune disease of the hair follicles that is thought to affect approximately 2% of the population. Blacks and Hispanics demonstrated almost 3-fold and 2-fold increased odds of having AA compared to Whites. It can present with small patches (alopecia areata), band line hair loss on the hairline (ophiasis), widespread shedding (alopecia areata incognito), total scalp hair loss (alopecia totalis), total hair scalp and body hair loss (alopecia universalis). It may be associated with other autoimmune diseases (i.e. thyroid disease). Nail changes (pitting) may be associated with a worse prognosis. Treatment includes steroids (topical, oral, injection), other anti-inflammatory oral/ topical (i.e. janus kinase inhibitors, methotrexate, tacrolimus, etc. ), contact immunotherapy (i.e. squaric acid), minoxidil, platelet rich plasma, excimer laser.
- Darwin E, Hirt PA, Fertig R, Doliner B, Delcanto G, Jimenez JJ. Alopecia Areata: Review of Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and New Treatment Options. Int J Trichology. 2018 Mar-Apr;10(2):51-60.
- Bokhari L, Sinclair R. Treatment of alopecia Universalis with topical Janus kinase inhibitors - a double-blind, placebo, and active-controlled pilot study. Int J Dermatol. 2018 Aug 30